Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Art of Advertising: Newtype USA "If advertising is not an official or state art, it is nonetheless clearly art" (Schudson). This wonderful quote clearly describes the type of advertising found in Newtype USA. The three most used techniques by advertisers in this magazine is the use of minimalist art, color, and beautiful scenery. All of these techniques appeal to an artist, and most people who watch anime tend to draw in their spare time. This makes sense considering all of the products they have in Newtype are all Japanese animation (anime). While looking through this magazine I found that every single advertisement was beautiful. Anybody that draws can appreciate the beauty of animation and in the end the quality of the graphics portrayed in the ad plays a big part in whether or not a person will purchase it. This being said, it makes it easy to understand why they use these techniques to advertise. The first major technique found in Newtype is minimalist art. This technique is usually used for anime that is done by an especially good company. The idea is that they don't need a fancy advertisement, because their characters are very well drawn. All they have to do is post a single image of one character from their anime on a solid back drop and plant their logo on it. When an anime fan sees a beautifully drawn character, the first thing they think is that it must be a great anime and they want to know what itÃ¢â¬â¢s all about. The fact that the company producing the anime obviously has immense talent in drawing a single image is a big selling point too. Next, the technique of using beautiful scenery in advertisements is probably the most used in Newtype. Leo Burnett described it best when he said, "I regard a great ad as the most beautiful thing in the worldÃ¢â¬ (Art). Certain anime companies prefer beautifully detailed backgrounds to perfection in individual characters. In their advertisements the consumer will notice the background images of castles, flowers, skies, etc. Recently they have also been using a lot of computer graphics instead of basic animation to really enhance the background experience. This has the same effect to the customer that the minimalist art has in that they instantly appreciate what they are seeing. The consumer is impressed with the quality of scenery in the advertisements making them want to buy the product.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Essay 2 Unfortunate Irony In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"HopeÃ¢â¬ by Ariel Dorfman the use of irony is what really sets and delivers the mood of this heart wrenching story. The author uses a very straight forward approach in this poem because they are essentially just telling the story, adding loose rhythm and rhyme structure. The best way for the author to get the point of this tragedy across is with subtle but profound irony. The mother and father finding Ã¢â¬Å"joyÃ¢â¬ in this horrible event is the best example of irony.Irony in my opinion is what can really drive home the feeling of the author or lyricist and is a way to completely change the direction of feeling. In Hope, when the author says Ã¢â¬Å"we couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t find out anything else about himÃ¢â¬ , itÃ¢â¬â¢s as if the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s implying they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where they are taking him, what they are doing with him, or if theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll ever see him again. The irony in this statement is that we assume that until compl eting the poem and rereading it, that maybe the parents will not get to see the child grow up.The author is speculating this early on that they will not see their child do all those things we have all been able to do and our parents have watched us do. Because they already know and somewhat accept what is going to happen to the child. The author is completely aware of what kind of situation this has brought about. You see this when Ariel says, Ã¢â¬Å"somebody tell me frankly what times are these, what kind of word, what countryÃ¢â¬ . Ariel knows, these are terrible timesÃ¢â¬ ¦ This type of irony really reminds of classic and contemporary country lyrics.The one that comes to mind immediately is Ã¢â¬Å"He Stopped Loving Her TodayÃ¢â¬ by George Jones. The story he tells is of a man thatÃ¢â¬â¢s hopelessly in love with a former lover that no longer loves him. The opening line really sets the tone with JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ haunting twang, Ã¢â¬Å"He said IÃ¢â¬â¢ll love you till I die, S he said youÃ¢â¬â¢ll forget in time. Ã¢â¬ But as the story explains, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t. JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ lyrics are extremely painful when describing the setting of his home and how he has held on to items that are linked to her. He kept some letters by his bed, Dated 1962, He had underlined in red, Every single I love you. Ã¢â¬ The verse right before the chorus and the chorus itself are what show the very unfortunate irony. The person telling the story explains how he went to see his friend and heÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"All dressed up to go away, First time IÃ¢â¬â¢d seen him smile in yearsÃ¢â¬ , the man had finally found the end to his pain on his way to his own funeral. The chorus, Ã¢â¬Å"He stopped loving her today, They placed a wreath upon his door, And soon theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll carry him away, He stopped loving her today. To find happiness in such a way just shows how bad the pain actually is, just like in Ã¢â¬Å"HopeÃ¢â¬ . To find any amount in joy due to horrific pain and sadne ss, is very sad and it is understandable how the family of the child in Ã¢â¬Å"HopeÃ¢â¬ and the friends of the man in Ã¢â¬Å"He Stopped Loving Her TodayÃ¢â¬ can find joy in these extremely sad and difficult situations The ultimate display of irony in Ã¢â¬Å"HopeÃ¢â¬ is after Ariel acknowledges the circumstances and situation their family has found themselves in and how to deal with it. They say they recognized his voice, his screams, they sayÃ¢â¬ , this is very powerful and very disturbing. This leads to the ultimate question of this piece, Ã¢â¬Å"What IÃ¢â¬â¢m asking is how can it be that a fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s joy, a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s joy, is knowing that they, that they are still torturing their son? Ã¢â¬ And the joy and comfort they find by knowing that if he is being tortured that is still alive and that still leaves a window for hope. Which means that he was alive five months later and our greatest hope will be to find out next year that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re still torturing him eight months later, and he mayÃ¢â¬ ¦ mightÃ¢â¬ ¦ could still be alive. Ã¢â¬ That is unfortunate irony, finding joy in a loved one being tortured because at least there is still hope they will one day be reunited with their child. Works Cited Dorfman, Ariel. Ã¢â¬Å"HopeÃ¢â¬ . Kirszner/Mandell Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing Jones, George. Ã¢â¬Å"He Stopped Loving Her TodayÃ¢â¬ http://www. cowboylyrics. com/lyrics/jones-george/he-stopped-loving-her-today-18102. html
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Even before the medical field of psychology was recognized, American writer Edgar Allan Poe shone a spotlight on some of the complicated mechanisms of the human brain in his works. Living a troubled life himself, Poe has a keen understanding of the complexities of the human brain and their effects on thoughts, feelings, and behavior. At first glance, PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s writing usually tends to creates a dark and gloomy atmosphere, one that immediately foreshadows doom for the protagonist. PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the human mind and the elements of psychology are clearly marked in stories such as Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask of Amontillado.Ã¢â¬ In PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s stories, he presents complex characters who become susceptible to the diverse forces of the mind such as reverse psychology, guilt, superstition, perversity, revenge, and schizophrenia. First published in 1846, Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask of AmontilladoÃ¢â¬ is an instance of Poe combining psychological elements of two distinct characters. In Ã¢â¬Å "The Cask of Amontillado,Ã¢â¬ MontresorÃ¢â¬â¢s brilliant use of reverse psychology, and his perversity and guilt are what forms him as an unbalanced, psychologically driven character. It is quite possible that Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask of AmontilladoÃ¢â¬ was inspired by a story Poe heard at Castle Island when he was a private in the army. There, Poe saw a monument to Lieutenant Massie, who, legend has it, was killed by Lieutenant Drane following a dispute during a card game. The other soldiers then avenged Drane for this by getting him drunk, luring him into a dungeon,Show MoreRelatedThe Cask of Amontillado by Edgar Allan Poe888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Cask of Amontillado by Edgar Allan Poe In ?The Cask of Amontillado?, Edgar Allan Poe takes us on a trip into the mind of a mad man. Poe uses certain elements to convey an emotional impact. He utilizes irony, descriptive detail of setting, and dark character traits to create the search of sinful deceit. Poe also uses first person, where the narrator is the protagonist who is deeply involved. The purpose is to get the reader to no longer be the observer. He wants them to see with MontressorRead MoreThe Cask of Amontillado by Edgar Allan Poe836 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesqualities in the story. In the story many things are used as symbols such as the actual cask of amontillado, the trowel, the jester costume and the setting in which there is two in the story. Another literary technique used significantly in the story is irony. Irony is the expression of ones meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite. In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask of Amontillado,Ã¢â¬ Montresor a very troubled man who plans to seek revenge on another man named FortunatoRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe And The Cask Of Amontillado1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat makes Edgar Allan Poe work unique? Other than being a strange individual, Poe has become a remarkable literature writer. The Raven, Annabel Lee, and The Cask of Amontillado are just a few of PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s work that staples the theme of gothic literature. This essay will allow you to see the gothic elements Edgar Allan Poe uses through his most common poems. Gothic literature has many elements which play into its definition. The actual definition is a style of writing that is characterized by elementsRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allan Poe906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask of AmontilladoÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask of AmontilladoÃ¢â¬ was written in 1846, by Edgar Allan Poe. Born in 1809, Poe never knew any of his parents. At the age of three, his mother died of tuberculosis, and his father deserted the family before he was born. Taking care of him was his foster parents in Richmond, Virginia. They loved Poe, but were not supportive of his decisions and kept Poe poor. Having debt and not being able to provide food and clothes for himself caused Poe to quit school. Later, heRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allan Poe920 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhen that trust no longer exists? In Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask of AmontilladoÃ¢â¬ written by Edgar Allan Poe, Fortunato is about to find the answer to this question. On the surface, Montresor seems friendly with Fortunato, but deep down he feels nothing but hate for him. Could this hatred have an irrationality that only Montresor understands? In different ways, both of these men are proud and affluent, yet both have downfalls that will l ead to a tragic ending. Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s use of language contributes to the understandingRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allan Poe1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn his writing, Edgar Allan Poe has multiple uses of direct and indirect characterization. In The Cask of Amontillado, Montresor had rules such as Ã¢â¬Å"I must not only punish but punish with impunity. A wrong is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser. It is equally unredressed when the avenger fails to make himself felt as such to him who has done the wrongÃ¢â¬ (Poe, 2). Poe used indirect characterization to show the reader that Montresor is an unreliable narrator because he justified hisRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allan Poe1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask of Amontillado,Ã¢â¬ the narrator recalls an extremely significant time in his life, and takes the reader along with him. Throughout the story, one experiences a perfectly planned murder which took place over fifty years ago, and still no one has discovered what truly happened to poor Fortunato as he was chained to a wall in a room that was then closed off, and torched to death due to all the nitre in the walls. As the story goes on, the reader can see some of PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s unfortunateRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allan Poe1076 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe short story, The Cask of Amontillado, written by Edgar Allan Poe is a story of terror and betrayal. Like many of PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s literary works, the story has a dark undertone with a theme of terror and depression. More than half a century ago, Marshall McLuhan argued that though Poe was fascinated by evil, the evil that he had in mind was not that of Calvinism, but that of the split man and the split civilization. In general, McLuhan was right, but in this instance Calvinism, and its God, provided a darkRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allan Poe707 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn the short story of The Ca sk of Amontillado, Edgar Allan Poe writes in first person point of view from the perspective of Montresor who seeks revenge against Fortunato. Montresor began to develop the perfect plan for revenge. During the carnival season, Montresor meets with Fortunato and decides to implement his plan carefully through irony. Poe s story describes the murderer s mind which has lived as a memory of Fortunato s death for fifty years. Poe uses different types of irony and symbolismRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allan Poe985 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEdgar Allen Poe is a well known author of short stories and poetry from the 19th century. He is known especially for his stories of horror and suspense. The Cask of Amontillado is one of his more famous pieces. The story follows the narrator, Montresor, as he exacts revenge on Fortunato. Montressor draws Fortunato into the wine cellar where eventually he chains Fortunato to the wall and encloses him inside it. Throughout the story the narrator continually proves that he is not the most reliable source
Friday, December 27, 2019
Post-Traumatic Stress In Relation To Holden Caulfield Introduction nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Throughout life, an individual may endure emotionally and physically straining moments causing the person to become downhearted, and or irate. These feelings are normal, but may however become a problem when these feelings prohibit someone from living a Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ life. An estimated 5.2 million American adults ages 18 to 54, or approximately 3.6 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have PTSD (Narrow, Rae, Regier). This purpose of this report is to prove whether or not Holden Caulfield, the main character of J.D. SalingersÃ¢â¬â¢s book The Catcher In The Rye, is depressed. What Is A Depressive Disorder? Depression is a seriousÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Another significant factor in HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s life was the suicide of James Castle, a schoolmate form Elkton Hills. This is shown when Holden returns home and is conversing with Phoebe in her bedroom. Phoebe asks Holden to name one thing that he really likes. At that moment all Holden can think of is about two nuns he met at the train station and James Castle, Ã¢â¬Å"The funny part is, I hardly even know James CastleÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (171). Holden kept replaying the incident just before James died. James Ã¢â¬Å"was a skinny little weak Ã¢â¬âlooking guy, with wrists about as big as pencils (170). Holden remembers Ã¢â¬Å"James [calling Phil Stabile] a very conceited guy, and some of StabileÃ¢â¬â¢s lousy friends went and squealed on him to StabileÃ¢â¬ (170). Stabile returned with about six other friends to try to get James to take back what he said but he would not take it back. Holden the recalls Ã¢â¬Å"what he did, instead of taking back what he said he said, he jumped out the windowÃ¢â¬ (170). Holden is going through a really difficult time in his life right now and he is trying to cope with the situations the best way that he knows how. Symptoms of a Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Many people with PTSD repeatedly re-experience the ordeal in the form of flashback episodes, memories, nightmares, or frightening thoughts, especially when they are exposed to events or objects reminiscent of the trauma. Anniversaries of the event can also trigger symptoms. People with PTSD alsoShow MoreRelatedPost-Traumatic Stress in Relation to Holden Caulfield1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPost-Traumatic Stress In Relation To Holden Caulfield Introduction Throughout life, an individual may endure emotionally and physically straining moments causing the person to become downhearted, and or irate. These feelings are normal, but may however become a problem when these feelings prohibit someone from living a Ãânormal life. An estimated 5.2 million American adults ages 18 to 54, or approximately 3.6 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have PTSD (Narrow, Rae, Regier)Read MoreHolden Caulfield Is On His Own Psychological Journey1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThroughout the novel of Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield is on his own psychological journey. This journey tells a lot about who Holden is as a person and the problems he is dealing with. It all starts when Holden has flunked out of Pencey Prep. His psychological struggles are triggered by the traumatic event of his brother, Allie, dying 4 years prior. The death of Allie has affected Holden in all aspects of his life, including friends, school, actions, and thought s. This causes concern in HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MorePsychoanalytic Theory Vs. Salinger s The Catcher s The Rye 1205 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesunderstanding the demeanor of Holden Caulfield, a young boy who is lost in his own world of isolation and adolescence, in J.D. Salinger s famous narrative. The Catcher in the Rye. Using first person to display behavioral actions with phrases such as, Ã¢â¬Å"...IÃ¢â¬â¢m not going to be a goddam surgeon or a violinist or anything anywayÃ¢â¬ (Salinger 39), Sanglier helps portray Holden s depression as he suffers from the loss of his younger brother Allie. Likewise many aspects of Holden s behaviors to the story canRead MoreEssay on Psychoanalysis of Holden Caulfield2159 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesbehavior and stress in an individual. Holden Caulfield, from J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s, 1948 novel, The Catcher in the Rye has been psychoanalyzed by many readers. Psychoanalysis is insightfully looking at a characters action and behavior to better understand t hem psychologically. By psychoanalyzing Holden CaulfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and thoughts, it becomes evident that he has Borderline Personality Disorder caused by his childhood trauma and neglect, and portrayed through symptoms that damage his relations and himselfRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words Ã |Ã 1056 PagesPERFORMANCE Establishing the Performance Management System 230 Establishing Rewards and Pay Plans 260 Employee Benefits 286 Ensuring a Safe and Healthy Work Environment 312 PART 6 Chapter 14 LABORÃ¢â¬âMANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTS Understanding Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining 340 Endnotes 367 Glossary 389 Company Index 395 Subject Index 398 v Contents PART 1 UNDERSTANDING HRM Chapter 1 The Dynamic Environment of HRM 2 Learning Outcomes 2 Introduction 4 5 Understanding Cultural Environments
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Modern production is increasingly growing around the so-called global value chains. According to World Trade Report for 2014, they are one of the main trends in modern economy and trade. Their growth in the last two decades have not only significantly change the nature of the world economy, but also had a strong influence on individual countries. However, the extent and nature of these effects are still not well understood by experts. Typically the value chain include the steps of: design, production, marketing, distribution and after-sales customer service. These steps may exist within the same company and shared between many firms. The fact that a growing number settles in various countries indicates the globalization of value chains.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Understanding the functioning of the administrative structures needed to assess the impact of economic policy on businesses and the location of production. The concept of global value chains was born back in the 1970s. This could be classified as commodity chains. The main idea of this chains is to trace the transformation of the entire set of source materials and the cost of products and turning them into a final product consumption. Later, the global supply chains were traced on the example of garments ranging from raw materials (cotton, wool, synthetic fibers) and ending with the final product (clothing). In the 2000s, there was a transformation of the concept of global commodity chains in the concept of global value chains. The second concept is trying to determine the most important factors of the organization of global industries, it offers a theoretical basis and practical tools to analyze value chains and different types of management. The idea of the value chain has been proposed by Michael Porter in his book Competitive Advantage to identify the sources of competitive advantage through analysis of certain types of activity of the company. In foreign economic literature makes a clear distinction between the chains, initiated by producers and buyers. Value chain divides the company s operations in the strategically important activities to examine the costs and existing and possible means of differentiation. The competitiveShow MoreRelatedMarketing Analysis : Global Supply Chain Essay1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGlobal supply chain remains a highly contested theme and there have bee n many attempts to define the real winner and competition of market power in the literature. The participant network varies in size and scope, depending on the products involved, geographic dispersion of supply and demand, and customer service requirements. Martin Christopher (2011: 15) states that within global supply chains the real competition is not company against company but rather, supply chains against supply chains. ThisRead MoreQuiz Questions On Supply Chain Management1170 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesQuiz 1 Supply chain management Supply chain management: It is defined as effective control of flow of material, information and finance in a network consisting of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and customers. Schematic representation: Effective functioning of supply chain requires Ã¢â¬ ¢ Coordination: proper coordination should exist in supply chain to meet the demands of the customers at right time, right place with right quality Ã¢â¬ ¢ Collaboration: there should be proper collaboration betweenRead MoreEnvironmental Factors Impact Retail Industry933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1. Introduction: From the perspective of macro-environment factor, after the global financial crisis, interest of the relationship between the environment and the economy has been significantly increased in recent year (Tienhaara, 2014). For example, as the holiday season comes close, all retailers are working hard to make sure their customers can get what they need and want. Consequently, the trend of trade must goes up constantly. However, countless goods may stack at the ports as a result ofRead MoreWhat Major Trends Do You See Affecting The Roles Of Purchasing Managers During The Next Decade?1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgreater role in the global economy, the traditional demand and supply poles that have shaped global commerce over the last 50 years will change dramatically. More and more global company will have their purchasing manager s based in China, India or Brazil. The procurement teams need to start developing expertise in local emerging market sourcing in China, Brazil, and India, as well as other developing economies. Sustainability is an essential strategy to business, especially the global company. ProcurementRead MoreGlobalization of Supply Chain Management1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConclusions The globalization of supply chain management is the natural outcome of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s expanding consumer markets as companies struggle to meet the dynamic needs of growing markets and new customer segments. It has led to a high degree of specialization under an ever-expanding world market. People with special skills can work with little overheads and market globally. Small companies can flourish. Introduction The pace of globalization on the supply chain continues to foster opportunities,Read MoreIs Outsourcing Bad Or Good? The Us Economy?898 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA) Why is outsourcing so bad or good to the US economy? In general, the outsourcing is hiring the foreign workers/company to do a particular task, as opposed to hiring domestic workers/company. Besides the outsourcing, the international purchase is an essential activity of companies. In the trend of a booming global economy, a company only focuses on its core value and hire suppliers to supply the necessary product and service. The relationship between companies are complicated and interdependentRead MoreSupply Chain Management ( Scm ) Essay1744 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTHE CORE ISSUES RELATED TO SUPPLY CHAIN DISRUPTIONS, TO REDUCE THE EXTRA COSTS OF COMPANIES Introduction The topic of the research has been discussed that what actually supply chain management (SCM) is, where it is utilized and what its importance in a business are, and why it is necessary to go for a research in this field. Additionally, opinions of different authors has been given that how an organisation could reduce their costs on the basis of supply chain management and why should the managersRead MoreGovernment Intervention On Kazakhstan Oil Industry Essay1535 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesintervention in Kazakhstan Oil Industry The world concerned problem today is the energy problem. Among other reasons of its country is growing thirst for oil and gas made thus a matter of strategic energy security. Oil is the stratagem industry in the development of economy and society. As the KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s oil industry is speeding developing, becoming one biggest world resources station, that is the main reason for Kazakhstan becomes the new focus of the world political and economic competition. FromRead MoreGovernment Intervention On Kazakhstan Oil Industry Essay1449 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGovernment intervention in Kazakhstan Oil Industry The world concerned problem today the energy problem. Among other reasons of its country is growing thirst for oil and gas made thus a matter of strategic energy security. Oil is the stratagem industry of the development of economy and society. With the development phase of KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s oil resources is speeding, the world big powers seek the benefits here, Kazakhstan becomes the new focus of the world political and economic competition. From this essayRead MoreLi Fung Ã¢â¬â the Global Value Chain Configurator1569 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesphilosophy behind supply-chain management and the specific practices that Li Fung has developed to reduce costs and lead times, allowing its customers to buy closer to the market. Li Fung, Hong Kong s largest export trading company, has been an innovator in global supply-chain management. Li Fung has also been a pioneer in dispersed manufacturing. It performs the higher-value-added tasks such as design and quality control in Hong Kong, an d outsources the lower-value-added tasks to the best
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Enhancing Health Care Equity. Answer: Introduction Human rights are intrinsic to all humans across the globe. Fundamental human rights are universal, and every individual is equally entitled to their rights without discrimination. Human rights promote the elimination of negative stereotypes, injustices, marginalization, and discrimination that has been overburdened on other individuals due to societal prejudices. The existence of human rights influences the relationships between citizens and the government power exercise over its citizens (Donnelly and Whelan 2017).Nonetheless; human rights are limited as States have an obligation of providing some rights while at the same time safeguarding citizens freedom. Some of the greatest milestones that human rights have helped all communities across the globe to achieve are women and persons with disability empowerment politically, economically, socially and culturally. Human rights have therefore helped to significantly reduce inequalities within the society especially in areas where patria rchy is the norm and women rights have been ignored. Through human rights, women have gained access to, control over and decision-making power on matters about their own life; a privilege most women had missed for centuries (Kim and Johnson 2011). Human rights ideology is therefore geared towards achieving sustainability which will promote economic, social, political and cultural development across the globe without discriminating certain individuals. The future fate of human rights seems promising as many people are aware of their rights. The human rights major focus is on universal values. The universal values of human rights focus on: equality, equity and non-discrimination, interdependence and indivisibility and the rights and obligations of the right owners and duty bearers. State responsibility in protecting human rights requires states to protect individuals and groups against injustices or any form of abuse. It is the responsibility of the state to take, formulate and implement affirmative action that will endorse the gratification of human rights (Nonet 2017). International human rights treaties ratification has prompted governments to establish domestic measures and legislation that matches their legislative obligations and duties which are guaranteed under international human rights laws (Nonet 2017). Human rights focus allows individuals opportunity to express their dissatisfaction at regional and international levels. Global rights focus on women and persons with disability and the societal stereotypes that have disadvantaged women. Human rights focus dealing with women rights has uplifted women from private sphere participation to public domain participation thus granting women right to education and health. For instance, the right to education has created awareness among women thus leading to economic, social and political empowerment (Deere and De Leal 2014). Right to health has prompted women access to information on contraception, protected women from environmental hazards and allowed them general access to health services. One of the most re-known policies that have promoted human rights while at the same time promoting health is the Victorian women health policy and well-being strategy that aims at safeguarding women health Victorian Women Health and Well-Being Strategy 2010 Victorian women and health policy 2010 is an Australian government policy that is aimed at preserving the health rights of Victoria state women. The strategy is a four-year term plan developed by the health department and designed to improve women health and wellbeing (Blank and Burau 2013). The strategy was established for all women in Victoria State with the intent of identifying health concerns and outcome of women unable to afford healthcare due to inadequate income. The Victorian women health policy gives priority to women sexual and reproductive health issues. Other functions of the strategy are to collaborate with other social bodies in preventing all forms of violence against women by prioritizing work at the health sector through rehabilitating, creating awareness and providing shade of domestic violence victims. The essence of Victoria Women health policy is, therefore, more geared towards tackling avoidable illnesses and deaths that affect Victorian women (Blank and Burau 2013). The development of Victoria Women Health Policy and Wellbeing strategy was facilitated and spearheaded by a committee of professionals who consults widely on the state and basic needs of women about their health and well-being. Besides focusing on women who cannot afford medical access, the strategy also focuses on women who have been mainstreamed in accessing health services by identifying better health services for women and linking the health services together to improve the outcome of women (Whv.org.au.2017). The Victorian women health policy and well-being have helped improve the livelihood and well-being of women by creating awareness on disease prevention, providing free medical services and enhancing greater employment opportunities for women. The major strength of the strategy is its highlight and determination to support women from a younger age as twelve years old. The organization slogan is based on the belief that positive development of women health is not only a plan but rather a contemporary plan that is geared towards developing a better future for women by encouraging positive health values adaption and resilience (Hub for health service and Business 2017). The organization supports health resilience by identifying the different issues that women undergo in the quest for accessing health facilities and by focusing on the poor health outcomes among women. Secondly, the organization also addresses women major health concerns and their wellbeing throughout their lifespan. Purpose for Discovery of Victorian Women Health Policy and Wellbeing 2010 The principal reason for discovering the strategy was to advocate for family planning among Victorian women by protecting women sexual and reproductive health. The policy slogan is based on care, education, and advocacy for women with lower health outcomes (Browne et al. 2016). Other three major areas that the strategy was created to defend when it comes to women health was chronic illness and injury, violence against women and their mental health (Grych et al. 2015). The family planning departments of the central strategy target are women from the ages of twelve as these are sexually active individuals. The family planning department allows women the right to exercise reproductive health over their life by enabling them to make decisions on the appropriate time they want to get children and the number of children they want to have (Sonfield et al. 2014). The strategy has also linked sexual and reproductive health to mental illness, chronic diseases, violence, and injury. This is because; most women are more prone to sexual injustices which exposes them to violence, injury and mental illness regarding depression and post-trauma after sexual, violent acts (Motz 2016). The aim of the strategy is, therefore, to join the four policies together in diversifying women through creating reproductive health awareness and providing health services responsive to Victoria's marginalized and disadvantaged women. Finally, the policy was discovered for health social determinant purpose where the Family Planning Victoria entrusted the government with the work of analyzing and determining the state of women health. Ways and Extent to Which the Policy Impact Positively and Negatively On Health The policy impacts positively on women as it advocates for the sexual and reproductive health of women by linking the challenges women undergo as a result of poor reproductive health outcome. The Strategy is embedded on the belief that that violating women sexual right exposes them to chronic illnesses such as Sexually Transmitted infections and cancers. Secondly, women who lack reproductive rights don't have control and decision-making power family planning; the strategy educates, advocate and create awareness to women from the age of twelve on family planning. Thirdly, the strategy understands that women who lack childbirth decision-making power and women who undergo sexual abuse are more prone to suffer mental disturbances due to depression and trauma (Kleppe 2016). The strategy aims at rehabilitating women in such scenarios. Personally, I believe that the strategy is an empowerment action that is likely to promote women dignity and give them the right to freely express their sexu al desires, frustrations, and interests thus allowing them an opportunity to participate in other matters of concerns within the society. Nonetheless, the strategy has focused so much on women and ignored the interests. The approach fails to understand that quality reproductive health is one which focuses on the needs of both men and women and goes beyond the absence of disease and emotional illness to rational and emotional dimensions. Separating men and females health policies promotes marginalization and stigmatization due to population assumption. In most instances, Men are always the assumed population. Assuming men sexual reproductive health and focusing on women may not be effective as when all genders are involved (Alexander et al. 2016). It is important to note that the positive and adverse effects of reproductive health occur differently in all populations and impacts the same way severely on the entire population. The Victorian state should, therefore, advocate for equity among women and men in promoting their sexual and reproductive health rights. The UN acts of human rights in 2012, declared contraception a universal fundamental human right, an implication that the rights should benefit everyone (Roosevelt, 2001). Even so, the Victorian women health policy has proven discriminative in two ways; first, it only helps women. Secondly, it is limited to women within the Victorian of Australia. All the same, the policy well targets; it is over-inclusive as it targets women as young as twelve years old. Besides it allows women opportunity to participate in matters affecting their lives by combining more and less restrictive, coercive and punitive policies. Restricted and coercive policies are used in instances where a situation poses harm to an individual wellbeing. Less restrictive and coercive policies are used as alternative humane policies in cases where the programs aim at reaching a particular objective. For instance, the Victoria women health and well-being use advocacy, education and care policy strategies as an alternative policy to enhancing the program effectiveness (Michau et al. 2015). Alternative humane policies emphasize on the main vision of a program agenda thus making it readily achievable. The policy has proven to be under inclusive as it focuses sexually related illness and ignoring other diseases those impacts on human the same way. Policies can be both inclusive and under inclusive depending on the matter of concern. For instance, The Victorian state has implemented a policy where commercial sex workers are penalized with intent of reducing STI'S, yet their agent is not penalized (Hextell 2017). This policy is under-inclusive because it targets a vulnerable population yet sexual behaviors occur with the participation of other members such as commercial sex agents and clients. The policy is over inclusive as it considers the fact that not all sex workers are infected, it, therefore, advocate for safe sex practice and clients access to information on potential risks associated with commercial sex. The Policy Necessitate Human Rights Restriction The policy is essential as it protects women from all sexual violence, makes provisions for treatments against post-sexual violence outcomes, creates awareness on reproductive health and provides marginalized and disadvantaged women with appropriate medical facilities. On the contrary, the policy itself is a restriction on human rights especially the women rights as it imposes certain policies on women on the grounds of protecting human rights. For instance, the policy fosters compulsory admission and detention of women who undergo serious violence issues as they administer treatment and investigate on certain criminal activities that may be associated with the sexual violation. The rights restrict individual freedom to the movement as people movements may be limited within a hospital premise due to illness or at a rehabilitation center for necessary medication and due to the impacts of mental diseases that arise due to post sexual violence trauma (Humanrights.gov.au.2017). The polic y necessitates human rights restriction as it protects victim's information from third-party access. Nevertheless, hiding information from close family members or relatives may be risky, the program may, therefore, be considered restrictive in such scenarios. The World Health organization treaty argues that reproductive health rights should be enjoyable and equitable granted to every individual (World Health Organization 2014). The policy only advocates for women reproductive assuming that of men, it 's hard to achieve reproductive health sustainability when one group is excluded from reproductive health awareness creation. Preconditions Meeting the Restrictions of the Rights Human rights maybe are limited and restricted to safeguard the life of an individual without their consent. For instance, victims of sexual violence might be coerced into a certain form of medication without their approval or knowledge of the medication. People are prescribed medication without their knowledge in instances where the condition is a threat to their survival. Secondly, the freedom of movement may be restricted whereby an individual is at risk or under legal command where the law necessities a solitary confinement within an area during a case investigation (Upshur 2002). Thirdly, freedom of movement is restricted by medical conditions where an individual is under a medical condition that may cause harm to other people or may to the person on medication. For example, patients with chronic illness may be limited to movement at an advanced stage due to the critical medical conditions that require close supervision and attention. On the other hand, patients with mental illness such as post-traumatic trauma and depression may be restricted within a rehabilitation center as their actions or response to stress management may expose them to actions that can harm other people. For example, individuals under stress may engage in disturbing activities such as drug abuse, may attempt suicide or inflict pain on other people as a way of relieving themselves from stress. Lastly, certain individuals rights may be restricted by prioritizing other peoples rights than others despite the laws. For example, Women rights have often been given more priority than that of men in most societies; this is because women have been constrained by societal norms from accessing certain rights. However, the globalization and women empowerment agenda has given women more priorities than men with the intent of helping women attain equality and rise from societal drawbacks. Women rights can therefore not be similar to men rights as they are not homogeneous beings (Dudgeon and Inhorn 2004). Efficiency of Health and Other Structures and Services in Implementing the Policy Health programs are effective in implementing the Victoria women policy, and well-being as health programs such as reproductive health programs share the same vision of education, care, and advocacy in family planning. Health programs provide women with necessary contraceptives and educate them on them of such contraceptives. Likewise, structures such as the Australian bill of rights provide a provision for women access to contraceptives and decision-making on family planning patterns about their lives (Shahnaz 2017). Even so, high pricing on contraceptive and medication may prevent the Victoria women health and well-being policy from being effective as most women are not able to afford to afford contraceptive cost despite the program strategy in caring for their contraceptive needs. Alternatively, the Victoria health program, the bill of rights, the health and government structures may provide all necessary provisions for better contraception but still fail to achieve its reproducti ve health agenda due to individual attitudes, cultural and religious belief against a particular form of contraception. All in all, the factors and strategies for health and policy implementation is not the same across all cultures, populations, and ages. Thus the policy implementation process may differ depending on an individual conviction on what is best for them (Kass and Beyrer 2007). Rights systems on health programs can be monitored through establishing a framework of supervision, research and data collection which will enable stakeholders to analyze the progress of the health program implementation. For instance, the effectiveness of the policy application and success can be determined by supervising on how providers educate, supply and guide people in implementing the program. The policy can also be monitored through gathering data on how individuals are responding to the program by researching on the impact of the program on beneficiaries. The collected research and analysis should be evaluated by different professional neutral parties to attain genuine and none biased research. All stakeholders and external stakeholders should be held responsible for the outcomes of the program implementation process. The information shall be shared with interested parties and disseminate to members y their departmental leaders; this is aimed at promoting easy access to poli cy implementation report and for accountability purposes on awareness creation. Challenges that arise from the policy implementation process will be redressed by conducting an evaluation analysis of the policy expectations, where the team shall analyze and determine its effectiveness in fulfilling the program vision. Stakeholders shall then brainstorm and conduct further research on better ways to enhance the program effectiveness. Conclusion Human rights health policies are essential as it promotes an individual well-being while at the same time protecting the health status of individuals. Human rights are universal but not homogeneous to all persons due to race, gender, religion, and culture. All the same, certain rights are similar among groups of individuals or populations. For instance, the reproductive health policy has similar provisions for all women across the world. Over the years, women have fall victims of violation, discrimination, and marginalization. Fortunately, the rise of globalization has promoted women empowerment and allowed women privileges that never existed before. Victoria women health and well-being is an example of one of the rights that women enjoy as a result of globalization. However, women empowerment strategy should not diminish men; it should be based on an equity approach where both men and women enjoy globalization benefits at a fairly. Work Cited Alexander, L.L., LaRosa, J.H., Alexander, W. and Bader, H., 2016.New dimensions in women's health. Jones Bartlett Publishers. Blank, R.H., and Burau, V., 2013. Comparative health policy. Palgrave Macmillan. Browne, Varcoe, Lavoie and Smye, V et al., 2016. Enhancing health care equity with Indigenous populations: evidence-based strategies from an ethnographic study.BMC health services research,16(1), p.544. Deere, C.D., and De Leal, M.L., 2014. Empowering women: Land and property rights in Latin America. The university of Pittsburgh Pre. Donnelly, J. and Whelan, D.J., 2017. International human rights. Westview Press. Dudgeon, M.R. and Inhorn, M.C., 2004. Men's influences on women's reproductive health: medical anthropological perspectives. Social science medicine, 59(7), pp.1379-1395 Grych, J., Hamby, S. and Banyard, V., 2015. The resilience portfolio model: Understanding healthy adaptation in victims of violence. Psychology of Violence, 5(4), p.343. Hextell, W. (2017). Sex Work. [online] Hivlegal.ashm.org.au. Available at: https://hivlegal.ashm.org.au/index.php/guide-to-australian-hiv-laws-and-policies-for-healthcare-professionals/sex-work [Accessed 2 Oct. 2017]. Hub for health service and Bussiness, V. (2017). Victorian public health and wellbeing plan 2015-19. [online] Www2.health.vic.gov.au. Available at: https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/about/health-strategies/public-health-wellbeing-plan [Accessed 2 Oct. 2017]. Humanrights.gov.au. (2017). Freedom of movement | Australian Human Rights Commission. [online] Available at: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/freedom-movement [Accessed 2 Oct. 2017]. Kass, N. and Beyrer, C., 2007. Human Rights and Public Health Ethics. Public Health and Human Rights: Evidence-Based Approaches, p.362. Kim, A.S. and Johnston, S.C., 2011. Global variation in the relative burden of stroke and ischemic heart disease. Circulation, pp.CIRCULATIONAHA-111. Kleppe, A.E., 2016. Tactics of Sexual Control and Negative Health Outcomes (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida). Michau, L., Horn, J., Bank, A., Dutt, M. and Zimmerman, C., 2015. Prevention of violence against women and girls: lessons from practice. The Lancet, 385(9978), pp.1672-1684. Motz, A., 2016. The psychology of female violence: Crimes against the body. Routledge. Nonet, P., 2017. Law and society in transition: Toward responsive law. Routledge. Roosevelt, E., 2001. Universal declaration of human rights. Applewood Books. Shahnaz Kohan, S. (2017). Association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome in couples residing in Isfahan. [online] PubMed Central (PMC). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4223960/ [Accessed 2 Oct. 2017]. Sonfield, A., Hasstedt, K. and Gold, R.B., 2014. Moving forward: Family planning in the era of health reform. Upshur, R.E., 2002. Principles for the justification of public health intervention. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante'e Publique, pp.101-103. Whv.org.au. (2017). Victorian women's health and wellbeing strategy 2010-2014 - Women's Health Victoria. [online] Available at: https://whv.org.au/publications-resources/publications-resources-by-topic/post/victorian-women-s-health-and-wellbeing-strategy-2010-2014/ [Accessed 2 Oct. 2017]. World Health Organization, 2014. Ensuring human rights in the provision of contraceptive information and services: guidance and recommendations. World Health Organization
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Introduction A teacher plays a number of roles to ensure that students have a serine environment to study in. These roles range from using up to date teaching techniques and methods to observing, controlling and influencing the attitudes and perceptions of students towards education.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on Project Learning to Improve the Performance of Students specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the course of decimating information to students, teachers need to stick to the school curriculum and come up with ideas and innovations that may improve the performance of students or amend the current school curriculum to meet the present needs and requirements of students (Mathes at al, 1998). It is evident that different students have different capabilities when it comes to learning (Abdulkareem, 2001). This is because every student is unique in his/her own way. As a result, every student has a differen t capability with regards to education or any other activities that he/she may be involved in. Due to this fact, there is a high diversity of students within a class or a school in terms of their abilities and capabilities. It is therefore the role of a teacher to identify the diversity of his students and use it to their advantage. Diversity within a classroom can arise due to the difference in the ethnic background of students, their academic capability, athleticism, religion, behaviour, culture and beliefs. Teachers should embrace the fact that students are diverse and use it to enhance their attitudes, perceptions and performance. As a result, all the students will benefit from the programme. Theoretically, this sound simple and easy. However, for it to work out perfectly, a teacher has to use one or more peer learning activities to ensure that the advantages that arise from the diversity of his/her students are tapped. These peer-learning activities advocate for cooperation amo ng a heterogeneous group of students. A heterogeneous group of students is composed of students who have different abilities or advantages. While working together, they will have a chance to share ideas and learn to work together as a team through cooperation to achieve a common goal or objective (Baker et al, 2000). To ensure that their abilities are effectively tapped, it is critical for a teacher to have in place a peer learning project that the students will be working on.Advertising Looking for coursework on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Working on a project will give the students a chance to put their theoretical skills into practice in order to solve real life situations, work together through cooperation and aim at achieving one common goal. This activity will give them a chance to explore their different abilities and ideas, bring them together and find a solution to the current problem. This will not onl y improve their class performance, but it will also improve their socialization skills thus they will accept one another regardless of the differences may exist between them. This document is thus a learning summary of project learning that I used to improve the performance of my students. It will focus on the design that I used to implement the project to promote student learning, its evaluation and reflection and the experience that was gained through summing up all the conditions that led to the project being successful. Design Project learning provides students with the chance to apply their knowledge and skills to solve real life problems that the world is currently facing. Students normally achieve this by employing critical thinking and collaboration. They therefore work together as a team to achieve a common goal or objective. By achieving the set goals and objectives of the study, these students would have all benefitted at the expense of each other (Rohrbeck et al, 2003). This is because they will have a chance to utilize their diverse abilities and skills to solve the problem that have at hand. To achieve this with my students, I designed a simple project that would enable them to use their diverse skills and capabilities to complete. Through this project, I was able to maximize their abilities and skills. The project gave them the chance to learn and gather new knowledge and skills from the research that they conducted. This assisted in enhancing their leaning abilities and improving their confidence. In addition, the project gave me a chance to identify their interests and potentials. In doing so, it will be easier to come up with methods to enhance and maximize them (Schunk and Zimmermann, 1994). This will give me a chance to explore their full potential hence enhancing their performance.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on Project Learning to Improve the Performance of Students specifically for you for only $16. 05 $11/page Learn More To ensure that the outcome of the project is as per my expectations, I decided to choose the topic of the project that the students worked on and the research design and methods that they employed. This ensured that there is uniformity in the manner in which the students carried out the project. In doing so, it was easier to measure the abilities and potentials of different students who were involved in the project. Working on the same project was as a benchmark of measuring the contribution, abilities, potential and interest of the students (Fullan, 2006). As a result, it will be easier to know the kind of attention that will be given to each student once the project has been completed. To put their abilities and skills at work, the students had to work on a project that focused on alternative sources of energy. This topic focused on a current issue being faced in the world. The world is currently facing a serious energy crisis. The available f orms of energy are expensive and bring about a lot of harm to the environment. At the same time, most of these energy sources are not renewable and yet they are widely applied for various uses in the domestic and industrial sectors (EEA, 2011). As a result, such sources of energy have become very expensive. This has led to the increase in the cost of production; a factor that has a ripple effect on the economy leading to the high of the cost of living and economic recession that is being experienced in the world at the present moment. Oil is a good example of an energy source whose prices have hit an all time high. The students therefore had to research on the status of the worlds energy requirements. They were also supposed to focus on the energy crisis that the world is currently facing and come up with theoretical solutions that to this predicament. The second phase was to design an alternative source of energy that was renewable in nature. For uniformity, they had to choose from water, wind or waste materials/products as their source of energy. For simplicity of their project, they had to design simple energy model that could be applied in domestic households as an alternative form of energy. This would reduce the costs that families face in trying to acquire energy and at the same time prevents environmental degradation (National Academic Press, 2006).Advertising Looking for coursework on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This project is multidisciplinary in nature. It requires research skills to gather the information concerning the energy crisis that the world is facing. It also requires planning and execution skills in coming up with the project idea, putting it into practice and achieving the desired results. At the same time, the project involves a mix of mathematics, science and art and design to execute. This will give the students a chance to put their diverse skills and abilities in practice (Bulls and McCalla, 2002). This was done to cater for the different student diversity within the class. To achieve maximum results from project learning, the students had to work in groups. To ensure the heterogeneity of each group, the students who composed a given group had different abilities and skills. For them to achieve the goals and objectives of the study, they had to cooperate and work as a team (Bennet et al, 1984). Heterogeneity of the group also enhanced sociometry. It was thus easier to ide ntify the contribution of each group member in the project, their social positions, acceptance and structure within the groups and the classroom in general (Fantuzzo et al, 1989). The last thing that i had to consider before creating the project groups was the comfortability of these students in various groups. I had to ensure that in every group, the group members were comfortable with one another. This will ensure that there is cooperation amongst them hence increasing the chances of them achieving the goals and objectives of the study. It will also guarantee maximum learning and the development of their skills and abilities. Finally, to ensure that the students work according to the rules, standards and guidelines that I had formulated, the students had to attain three objectives by the end of the study. These were: Task completion Instructional goal Knowledge building goal Considerations of Peer Learning, Reflection, Assessment and Evaluation The methods that are used in peer learning can vary on several perspectives depending on the context in which the programme is designed and the goals and objectives that it is expected to achieve (Graham, 2002). In this respect therefore, different peer learning activities have different objectives, target groups and outcomes (Hargreaves and Fink, 2006). Studies that have been conducted recently reveal that peer learning has evolved in their operation by aiming at equally involving all the participants in the project irrespective of education level, background or abilities of different individuals. The need for reciprocal tutoring has also increased. This has ensured that all the parties that are involved benefit from the study. This has reduced any element of social diversity and has ensured that there is continuous participation from all the parties that are involved in the study enhancing the sustainability of the project. To ensure that the above considerations are involved in my design project, the application of Toppers 12 considerations of a project was necessary (Topping, 2005). These include: Context Objectives Curriculum area Participants Helping techniques Contacts Materials Training Process monitoring Assessment o f students Evaluation Feedback Integration of all these considerations coupled with high level of thoughtfulness and integrity resulted to a high success rate that was experienced from the project. Each of these factors played an important role in ensuring that all the rules, guidelines and considerations for the project were followed. They also ensured that the project was conducted as per the expected requirements and standards that were required to achieve the desired results. The context of the project was within and outside the classroom. The activities that the students were involved took much of their time. Due to this fact therefore, there are some of the sections of the project that were conducted within the classroom and some that were conducted out of the cla ssroom. Due to this fact therefore, students interacted with each other even outside the school setting. This enhanced their sociometric exercise through the increased level of interaction (McLeod, 1992). As a result, the students stood a higher chance of succeeding in their projects. The objectives of the project were clearly stated. The students were clearly informed about the scoop of the project, the expected outcome and the criteria that was used to evaluate the project. This was done to ensure that the students stick to the set rules and guidelines of the project in order to achieve the desired results (Mendez, 1992). The study had two different set of objectives, those that had to be achieved by the project of the students and the overall objectives of the study. In their projects, the objectives of the students were: To identify the causes of energy crisis that the world is currently facing To come up with an alternative source of energy that can be used to supplement domes tic needs. To formulate solutions to the energy crisis that the world is currently facing The overall objectives that the study wanted to achieve were: To ensure that all the students complete the task at hand To ensure that the students stick to the instructions of the project To ensure that the project builds and develop the knowledge and skills of all the students To promote the performance of students through peer learning Having clearly set goals and objectives ensured that all the students and me as their teacher worked together to ensure that we achieve the goals and targets of the project within a stipulated time period. Objectives also acted as the guidelines that measured the progress of the project and its viability. By the end of the project, all the groups and hence all the students had attained the objectives of this study. This thus showed that the study was a success. The topic of the project that the students were to work on was on current affairs. This ensured t hat almost all the subjects and disciplines that the students study were covered on the project. However, the project laid a lot of emphasis on mathematics, sciences and art and design. This was due to the high diversity of knowledge and skills that the class contained with regard to these subjects. The project therefore gave them an opportunity to explore on their various subjects of interest, gather new information and share their ideas and skills amongst each other (Gumpel and Frank, 1999). The project was conducted in groups. This ensured that the students could interact with one another, share their ideas and skills and work together as a team to achieve the goals and objective of the project (King, 1998). This ensured that the students would learn to apply their individual skills and at the same integrate together as a team to find solve the problems that they may be facing, at the present time and in future. The project also had several helping techniques. the main learning s trategy that the project focused on was research and application. Students were expected to apply their research skills to identify the causes of energy crisis that the world is facing, the effects it has on the economy and possible solutions to alleviate the problem. The model of alternative source of energy was just but one of the many solutions that they had identified. The project was to last for eight academic weeks. During this time, students had the time to gather ideas for the project, collect the required information, started working on the energy saving model, finalised their projects and did the presentation. All these activities were done in phases; each being analysed before they moved to the next. The teachers assistance was always provided whenever the students needed the help. The resources that were required for the project included books, cardboards and stationery. Any additional materials or resources that were required by the students were supplied to them. Befor e the commencement of the project, the students were given a handbook that contained the rules and guidelines of the project, its purpose, expectations and outcomes, and their duties and roles. Students were also trained on the various techniques amd methods of gathering information and designing project models. This ensured that they were well equipped before they commenced the project. Strict monitoring was conducted during the project. Each group had a group leader who monitored the activities that the other students were engaged in. As their teacher, i monitored the progress of each individual student and the overall progress of the group. When irregularities were noticed, corrective measures were put in place to ensure that the project is on track (Plank, 2009). Normative assessment was applied to measure the progress of the project. This method involved the assessment of the group process, individual progress and group progress. The assessments were conducted after a regular i nterval to measure the rate at which the project was progressing (Wu and Short, 1996). While assessing the students the key components that were considered were: The extent to which the students understood and executed the research topic The development of their research questions hypothesis Methods of enquiries that they utilized Limitations of the design that they chose Time line division of labor among the various individuals of the group This was the criteria that was used for assessment. The group leader also had to keep a work schedule that contained the details duties of all the group members, their daily activities, the problems they encountered and the methods that they used to solve them. This information was essential as it made assessment to be much easier and effective (Murphy, 1998). other factors that were considered while assessing the students was participation and contribution of all the students in their respective groups, their cooperation, communication methods, critical thinking and problem solving techniques and the level excellence of their projects. Evaluation was the last step that was involved in the project. By this time, all the students had completed their project (the model for alternative energy and the report write up). each group had 30 minutes to present their project before the entire class, defend the theories that they had come up with and answer questions from their peers. Their work, mode of presentation and how they handled and answered questions formed the basis of evaluation. From here, final marks were awarded for each group. the final step was to determine the impact the project had on the student. This was done to ensure that the main objectives of the project were achieved. This project aimed at promoting peer learning among students thus by the end of the project, students should have increased their knowledge and skills, identified and worked on their interests, shared their ideas and developed skills in critical thinking and problem solving (Lindsay, 1997). Impacts of the project on student learning This project brought about a lot of improvements in the performance of the students. As a result, the grades of most of the students in the class went up. This can be attributed to the fact that the project gave them a chance to expand their knowledge and skills on various aspects of curriculum (McLuckie and Topping, 2004). The project that the students were involved in was multidisciplinary, this ensured that they integrated their knowledge, skills and capabilities on various subjects to achieve a desired result. The students also developed analytical and critical thinking skills in the course of the project. This will be useful especially in their further studies when they will be required to carry out sophisticated studies and researches. In addition, the project developed cooperation among the students. This was achieved through working together to achieve a desired outcome that wa s beneficial to all the parties that were involved in the project. Working in groups also developed the participation, social acceptance, social positions and social structure in all the students. Experience Gained from the Project After working on the project, I realized that it is necessary as a teacher to identify the student diversity that is present in a particular class, identify the strength and weaknesses of individual students and then formulate a project-learning project that will aim at improving the performance of all the students. Project learning is an effective and efficient method of improving the performance of students and boosts their skills, knowledge and capabilities. While working in heterogeneous groups, students get the chance to utilize their capabilities and share ideas. This leads to an overall development of all the students, impacting positively on the performance of the students. As a result, the grades of all the students will improve. Therefore, proje ct learning project is the best means through which one can improve the performance of all the students within a short time period (Bellon and Beaudry, 1992). Conclusion Over the years, project learning has been used as one of the tools that aim at improving the performance of students who have diverse capabilities. This has been achieved through engaging students in projects that cover either one subject or several subjects that they learn in class. In the process, students get the chance to put their knowledge and skills in practice to solve real life situations. In the process, they read wide, share ideas, come up with new ones, critically analze the situation, and come up with solutions. Project learning should therefore be used by teachers to improve the performance of their students. References Abdulkareem, R. (2001) Supervisory Practices as Perceived by Teachers and Supervisors in Riyadh Schools, Saudi Arabia. Unpublished M.Phil dissertation, University of Ohio. Bellon, T. an d Beaudry, J. (1992) TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of their leadership roles in site-Ã based decision-making. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. Bennett, S. N., Desforges, C. W., Cockburn, A., and Wilkinson, B. (1984). The quality ofÃ pupil learning experiences. London: Lawrence Erlbaum. Baker, S., Gersten, R. and Chard, D (2000). Factors enhancing sustained use of research-based instructional practices. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33 (5), 445-457. Bull, S., and McCalla, G. (2002). Modelling cognitive style in a peer help network.Ã Instructional Science, 30, 497Ã¢â¬â528. EEA.(2011) EEA Professional Development Schedule 2011. EEA.com, viewed on https://eeaust.com.au/ Fantuzzo, J. W., Riggio, R. E., Connelly, S., and Dimeff, L. A. (1989). Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring on academic achievement and psychological adjustment: A componential analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 173Ã¢â¬â 177. Fullan, M. (2006) Sustaining Leadership in Complex Times: An individual and system solution. Sustaining and Developing Leaders. London, Sage Publications. Graham, C. R. (2002). Factors for effective learning groups in face-to-face and virtual environments. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 3, 307Ã¢â¬â319. Gumpel, T. P., Frank, R. (1999). An expansion of the peer-tutoring paradigm: Cross- age peer tutoring of social skills among socially rejected boys. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 115Ã¢â¬â118. Hargreaves, A. and Fink, D. (2006) Sustainable leadership. San Francisco: JosseyÃ¢â¬â Bass. King, A. (1998). Transactive peer tutoring: Distributing cognition and metacognition.Ã Educational Psychology Review, 10, 57Ã¢â¬â74. Lindsay, J. (1997) Techniques in human geography. Oxon, Routledge. Mathes, P. G., Howard, J. K., Allen, S. H., and Fuchs, D. (l998). Peer-assisted learning strategies for first-grade readers: Responding to the needs of diverse learner s.Ã Reading Research Quarterly, 33, 62Ã¢â¬â94. McLeod, D. (1992) Research on the affect in mathematics education: A reconceptualization. In D. A. Grouws (ed.) Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, pp. 575-596, New York: Macmillan. McLuckie, J., Topping, K. J. (2004). Transferable skills for online peer learning.Ã Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 29, 563Ã¢â¬â584. Mendez, S. (1992) Leadership Characteristics that Facilitate School Change.Ã SEDL.org. 2011. Web. Murphy, J.T. (1988) The unheroic side of leadership: Notes from the swamp. Phi DeltaÃ Kappan, 69, 654-659. National Academic Press. (2006) Learning to think spatially. New York: National Academies Press. Plank, D. (2009) Handbook of education policy research. New York, Taylor Francis. Rohrbeck, C. A., Ginsburg-Block, M. D., Fantuzzo, J. W., and Miller, T. R. (2003). Peer- assisted learning interventions with elementary school students: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Educatio nal Psychology, 95, 240Ã¢â¬â257. Schunk, D. H., Zimmermann, B. J. (1994). Self-regulation of learning andÃ performance.New York: Lawrence Erlbaum. Topping. K. (2005). Trends in Peer Learning. Educational Psychology, 25(6), 631-645. Wu, V. and Short, P. M. (1996) The relationship of the empowerment to teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ job commitment and job satisfaction. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 23, 85-89. This coursework on Project Learning to Improve the Performance of Students was written and submitted by user Sylvia Walls to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.